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The other families were poor in representation in both forests. Within the Phyllostomidae family, the subfamily Stenodermatinae dominated at both lowland forest 12 spp.
Species and taxonomic richness, and taxonomic ratios of bats recorded in the lowland forest of Batipa and in the cloud forest of Fortuna partitioned by spatial scale and method.
For bats recorded with mist nets, species accumulation curves showed that the cloud forest accumulated species faster than the lowland forest during the first 20 netting nights.
Thereafter, more species were captured in the lowlands until both curves reached similar species richness Figure Rarefaction analysis showed that close to captures would have been required to accumulate 34 and 33 species in the lowland forest and in the cloud forest, respectively.
My actual sampling accumulated 35 species with bats and 34 species with bats in the lowland forest and in the cloud forest, respectively.
Both bat communities were numerically dominated by a few abundant and many less abundant species Table , Figures , , Appendix B.
The six most abundant 40 species in the lowland forest Artibeus jamaicensis, C. The six most abundant species A.
The superabundant A. The number of understory and canopy species was similar in both forests Table For the lowlands, rarefaction analysis showed that close to captures would have been required to accumulate 30 and 31 species in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.
My actual sampling accumulated 31 species with bats and 33 species with bats in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.
For the cloud forest, rarefaction analysis showed that close to bats would have been required to accumulate 26 and 23 species in the understory and in canopy, respectively.
My actual sampling accumulated 28 species with bats and 29 species with bats in the understory and in the canopy, respectively.
Abundance categories for bat communities of lowland forest Batipa and cloud forest Fortuna. Abundance range and number of species Category Lowland forest Species Cloud forest Species Rare 10 14 Uncommon 15 7 Common 5 6 Abundant 4 6 Superabundant 1 1 Total 35 34 41 Table Species richness of bats in lowland forest and cloud forest partitioned by species category and forest strata A.
Species categories: rare species are those represented by - 5 individuals, all other species are those represented by - 6 individuals, and restricted species are those species captured only in one strata level, understory or canopy.
Individual abundances of bat species in these two forests partitioned by forest strata B. I captured significantly more individuals in the canopy than in the understory in both forests G"'s - I found differences in the relative species abundance distribution between forests.
Species abundance distribution showed a high frequency of uncommon species in the 42 lowland forest and rare species in the cloud forest Table , Figure Species rank abundance distribution in the lowland forest showed the typical log normal distribution with one or two dominant species, whereas in the cloud forest several species were prominent Figure In the lowland forest, the rank-abundance patterns of understory and canopy samples are very similar to each other and to the total sample Figure However, they differ in the sequence of most abundant species.
Understory bats are dominated in decreasing order by A. In the cloud forest, the rank-abundance patterns of understory and canopy samples show similar distribution Figure Between cloud forest strata there is a difference in the sequence of most abundant species.
Understory species are represented in decreasing order by S. However, lowland forest showed lower species diversity than cloud forest using both two diversity indices H', NMS , with significant differences for Shannon's Index H': 2.
The cloud forest showed a more equal abundance distribution among species than the lowland forest E: 0. Measures of community diversity and evenness for total and by strata bat community in lowland forest and cloud forest for bats captured with mist nets.
Combining sampling methods, lowlands and cloud forest have 31 species in common Appendix B. Measures of community similarity for total and by strata bat community in a lowland forest and cloud forest based on data from combined mist netting and acoustic , mist netting, and acoustic monitoring methods.
The lowland bats had a more diverse understory than the canopy, but similar evenness Table and higher taxonomic than functional similarity between strata Table Species richness within insectivore and piscivore bat families in a lowland forest and cloud forest in Panam6.
Species richness of the bat family Phyllostomidae PHY and its subfamilies in a lowland forest and cloud forest in Panamd. Subfamilies are the insect-omnivorouscarnivorous Phyllostominae Phy , nectarivore Glossophaginae Glo , and frugivore Carollinae Ca and Stenodermatinae Ste.
Bat species accumulation curves from two forests in Panamd at different elevations during July Dec Curves show total number of species captured partitioned by lowland forest Batipa: 35 spp.
Arrows divide netting nights in year periods. Distribution of the relative species abundance for Panamanian bats in a cloud forest Fortuna and a lowland forest Batipa.
Relative abundance distributions are plotted by doubling classes of abundance log2 , following the method of Preston Dominance-diversity curves for bat species in two Panamanian forests at different elevations.
Log10 of species abundance partitioning by lowland forest Batipa: 35 species and cloud forest Fortuna: 34 species bat species rank.
Sample size refers to total bat abundance. Dominance-diversity curves for the bat community in lowland forest Batipa.
Log10 of species abundance partitioned by total 35 species , canopy 33 species , and understory 29 species bat species rank. Sample size refers to bat abundance for total community, canopy, and understory.
Dominance-diversity curves for the bat community in a cloud forest Fortuna. Log10 of species abundance partitioned by total 34 species , canopy 29 species , and understory 28 species bat species rank.
Forest strata in the cloud forest were more taxonomically C,: 0. Spatial and Temporal Bat Diversity Annual and seasonal temporal patterns of bat species richness and abundance were different between and within sites.
When partitioned among years the lowland and cloud forest showed similar trends in species richness and "single species", but not with respect for abundance and "unique species" Tables , Corrected values for annual mist netting effort.
Single species were species represented by one individual in a year, and unique species were species not captured in any other year. Values for unique species were not corrected.
Numbers in parentheses represent raw values. Monthly values of species richness, abundance, and rainfall showed high variation by year at both forests Figures , The partitioning among seasons showed differences in species richness and abundance patterns between forests or strata.
Also, I found significant differences Table Corrected values for annual mist netting effort- of bat abundance and species richness partitioned by year for the cloud forest.
Single species were species represented by one individual in a year, and unique species were species not captures in any other year.
Temporal variation in the community of lowland bats from Batipa. Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean with high and low values, except for June bat data which is a 2-year mean.
Variables are species richness A , individual abundance B , and rainfall C. Species richness and individual abundance are measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour respectively.
Temporal variation in the community of cloud forest bats from Fortuna. Each monthly point represents a 3-year mean, except for June bat data which is a 2-year mean.
Variables are for total, understory, and canopy species richness A and individual abundance B measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour, respectively.
Late Rainy 1. Variables are for total, understory, and canopy species richness A and individual abundance B measured as monthly species and bats captured by net hour respectively.
A Dry 0. Two of the three missing guilds in the cloud forest, the 'highly cluttered space gleaning omnivore' and the 'highly cluttered space gleaning carnivore', are represented in the lowlands by members of the subfamily Phyllostominae with 3 and 1 species, respectively.
The third missing guild is the lowland 'highly cluttered space gleaning piscivore', represented by the family Noctilionidae 1 sp.
Tables , , Appendix B. The frugivore guild was dominant in number of species at both lowland 15 spp. Next was the gleaning insectivore with more species in the lowlands 7 spp.
The other guilds had low species richness at both forests Tables , The omnivore, carnivore, and piscivore guilds were only recorded in the lowlands see above.
Members of the family Phyllostomidae Carolliinae and Stenodermatinae comprise the guild of frugivore at both forests, whereas the background aerial insectivore consists of Vespertilionidae, Emballonuridae, and Mormoopidae at both forests with the addition of Noctilionidae and Thyropteridae in the lowlands and the cloud forest, respectively.
In both forests, the family Phyllostomidae comprises the members of the gleaning insectivores Phyllostominae as well as in the nectarivores Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae.
The uncluttered aerial insectivores were members of the families Molossidae and Emballonundae in the lowlands, but Molossidae only in the cloud forest, whereas the sanguivore of the Phyllostomidae Desmodontinae occurred at both forests.
The highly cluttered aerial insectivore was a member of the family Mormoopidae and the omnivore, carnivore, and piscivore guilds were described above for the lowlands Appendix B.
In decreasing order of species richness, the body mass ranges of g small and 10 g very small showed the highest values both in the lowland forest 20 and 17 spp.
These ranges included members of five and four guilds, respectively; each range is dominated by the 'background cluttered space aerial insectivore' and frugivore' guilds at both forests.
The range of g medium showed the highest number of guilds with six at both forests Tables , In the cloud forest the most occupied cells were g 'highly cluttered space gleaning frugivore' 12 spp.
Tables , Aerial insectivores represented most of the smallest bats 10 g in both forests. Within its body mass range, background cluttered aerial insectivore had more species and genera than any other aerial insectivore guild at both sites.
The genera Myotis, Saccopteryx, Peropteryx, and Eptesicus had more than one species in this guild. The uncluttered and highly cluttered aerial insectivores were dominated by the genera Molossus and Pteronotus, respectively, in both forests Tables , , Appendix B.
The guild of gleaning insectivores had more species in the smallest size class g and the genus Micronycteris dominates in number of species in both forest Tables , At the lowland forest, the three most frequent captured smallest species were segregated by strata use M.
The two similar abundant species of small size g were differentiated by strata, one was an understory bat M. The only species of medium size g was the most frequently captured gleaning insectivore, Tonatia silvicola an understory bat.
In the cloud forest, two species M. The 91 g class was represented by Phyllostomus hastatus a common omnivore canopy species. In the lowlands, the rare carnivorous species Chrotopterus auritus, represented the g class.
Sometimes Trachops is included within this guild or in the omnivorous guild, because of its frog-eating habits Tuttle and Ryan The piscivore guild was represented in the g class by Noctilio leporinus, which was observed only in the lowlands foraging over a pond near the forest.
The sanguivore guild was represented in both forests in the g class by Desmodus rotundus, a common understory species. Niche matrix of guild-body mass for 51 species of bats recorded in lowland forest of Batipa, Chiriqui, Panami with a combined mist-netting and acoustic method.
The nectarivore guild in the cloud forest was more diverse in number of species and body mass classes. In the lowlands, the two smallest nectarivorous species 10 g were an abundant understory species Glossophaga soricina , and an uncommon bat, that 60 used both strata G.
The large size g nectarivorous canopy species, Phyllostomus discolor, sometimes is included in the omnivore guild. In the cloud forest, three of the four smallest species had no preference for strata but differed in abundance Hylonycteris underwoodi and Glossophaga spp.
The other two size classes were represented by two uncommon canopy species, L. The g class was represented only by one individual of P.
Niche matrix of guild-body mass for 52 species of bats recorded in cloud forest of Fortuna, Chiriquf, Panami with a combined mist netting and acoustic method.
The smallest 10 g species Vampyressa pusilla, Ectophylla macconnelli represented one of the less abundance size classes at both forests.
The g class had higher diversity of species 61 and genera among frugivore size classes at both sites. Numerically dominant were three understory abundant-common Carollia spp.
Other genera contain only one uncommon canopy species Uroderma bilobatum, Platyrrhinus helleri, and Vampyressa nymphaea. A bin melody, mirth, and mystery ahow.
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Children's Classes, Baturday Mornings,. Here's why I've used pop music recently in my classroom and keep reading until the end of the post for some quick ideas to get started!
The most important reason, in my mind, for using pop music at times in the music classroom is to connect music of the past to music of the present.
I once had a discussion with my husband about this. He is by no means a fan of typical pop music—he likes all kinds of somewhat obscure bands like Deer Tick and Wilco and My Morning Jacket—but his argument was this: how are they going to connect the music they learn from you to the music they listen to?
I didn't have an answer then, except that they'd have to do it on their own. But why shouldn't I help that connection? Wouldn't it help them see the big idea that the music concepts they learn from me happen in ALL music?
And isn't that a powerful big idea? Many of us were taught that we should only use the best music a sentiment I completely agree with!
I think the elephant in the room is that many people think that all pop music is bad. In my opinion, that's not true.
A decent amount of pop music is not the best quality, but there are plenty of good pop songs. Listed below A PI'.
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Search Advanced Search. As it is, Alfonso the Learned ranks with any Portuguese of them all ; and it is reasonable to think that he had fellows whose achievement and names have not reached us.
For Spanish literature and our- selves the loss is grave ; and yet we cannot conceive that there existed in early Castilian any examples com- parable in elaborate lyrical beauty to the cantars d'amigo which the Galician-Portuguese singers borrowed from the French ballettes.
In the first place, if they had existed, it is next to incredible that no example and no tradition of them should survive. Next, the idea is intrinsically improbable, since the Castilian language was not yet sufficiently ductile for the purpose.
Moreover, from the outset there is a counter-current in Castile. The early Spanish legends are mostly concerned with Spanish subjects.
Apart from obvious foreign touches in the early recensions of the story of Bernaldo de Carpio who figures as Charlemagne's nephew , the tone of the ballads is hostile to the French, and, as is natural, the enmity grows more pronounced with time.
Thus, the balladist emphasises the fact that the faithless wife of Garci-Ferndndez is French ; and, again, when Sancho Garcfa's mother, like- wise French, appears in a rojnancey the singer gives her a blackamoor — an Arab — as a lover.
In considering early Spanish verse it behoves us to denote facts and to be chary in drawing inferences. It is not to be assumed that similarity of incident necessarily implies direct imitation.
His presence in the field may be — almost certainly is — an historic event, common enough in days when a militant bishop loved to head a charge ; and the chronicler may well have seen the exploits which he records.
It by no means follows, and it is extravagant to suppose, that the Spanish juglar merely filches from the Chanson de Roland.
That he had heard the Chanson is not only probable, but likely ; it is not, to say the least, a necessary consequence that he annexed an epi- sode as familiar in Spain as elsewhere.
Nothing, if you probe deep enough, is new, and originality is a vain dream. Nor must it be forgotten that from a very early date there are traces of the reflex action of Castilian upon French literature.
They are not, indeed, many ; but they are authentic beyond carping. Borrowed from the East, the story is trans- mitted to the Greeks, is annexed by the Arabs, and is passed on through them to Spain, whence Adenet le Roi conveys it for presentation to the western world.
More directly and more characteristically Spanish in its origin is the royal epic entitled Ansdts de Carthage. Here, after the manner of your epic poet, chronology is scattered to the winds, and we learn that Charlemagne left in Spain a king who dishonoured the daughter of one of his barons ; hence the invasion by the Arabs, whom the baron lets loose upon his country as avengers.
The basis of the story is purely Spanish, being a some- what clumsy arrangement of the legend of Roderic, Cora, and Count Julian ; the city of Carthage standing, it may be, for the Spanish Cartagena.
Hence it is clear that the mutual literary debt of Spain and France is, at this early stage, unequally divided.
Moliere, the two Corneilles, Rotrou, Sorel, Scarron, and Le Sage, to mention but a few eminent names at hazard, readjust the balance in favour of Spain ; and the inexhaustible resources of the Spanish theatre, which supply the arrangements of scores of minor French dramatists, are but a small part of the literature whose details are our present concern.
These primitive pieces are characterised by a vein of popular, unconscious poetry, with scarce a touch of personal artistry ; and the ascrip- tion which refers one or other of them to an individual writer is, for the most part, arbitrary.
Insufficiency of data makes it impossible to identify the oldest literary performance in Spanish Romance.
Jews like Judah ben Samuel the Levite, and trovadores like Rambaud de Vaqueiras, arabesque their verses with Spanish tags and refrains ; but these are whimsies.
Experts differ concerning their respective dates ; but the liturgical derivation of the Misterio inclines one to hold it for the elder of the two.
If Lidforss were right in attributing it to the eleventh century, the play would rank among the first in any modern language.
Amador de los Rfos dates it still further back. As these pretensions are excessive, the known facts may be briefly given. Both conjectures have proved just.
Throughout Europe the Christian theatre derives from the Church, and the early plays are but a lay vernacular rendering of models studied in the sanctuary.
Simplified as the liturgy now is, the Mass itself, the services of Palm Sunday and Good Friday, are the unmistakable cUbris of an elabo- rate sacred drama.
If Hartmann be justified in his contention, that the tradi- tional names of the Magi were not in vogue till after the alleg ed discovery of their remains at M ilan in 11 the Spanish Misterio can be, at best, no oldeFthan the end of the twelfth century.
Enough of it remains to show that the Spanish work- man improved upon his models. He elaborates the dramatic action, quickens the dialogue with newer life, and gives his scene an ampler, a more vivid atmos- phere.
Led by the heavenly star, the three Magi first appear separately, then together ; they celebrate the birth of Christ, whom they seek to adore, at the end of their thirteen days' pilgrimage.
There is even a breath of the critical spirit wholly absent from all other early mysteries, which accept the miraculous sign of the star with a simple, unquestion- ing faith.
In our play, the first and third Magi wish to observe it another night, while the second King would fain watch it for three entire nights.
Lastly, the scale of the Misterio is larger than that of any predecessor ; the personages are not huddled upon the scene at once, but appear in appropriate, dramatic order, delivering more elaborate speeches, and express- ing at greater length more individual emotions.
Important and venerable as is the Misterioj its freer treatment of the liturgy, its effectual blending of realism with devotion, and its swiftness of action are so many arguments against its reputed antiquity.
I It is still old if we adopt the conclusion that it was written some twenty years before the Poenta del Cid. The beginning is lost; a page in the middle, containing some fifty lines following upon verse , has gone astray from our copy ; and the end has been retouched by unskilful fingers.
The original composition is thought to date from about the middle third of the twelfth century , some fifty years after the Cid's death at Valencia in Hence the Poem of the Cid stands almost midway between the Chanson de Roland and the Niebelungenlied.
Nevertheless, in its surviving shape it is the result of innumerable retouches which amount to botching. Our gratitude to Per Abbat is dashed with regret for his slapdash methods.
Still, to Per Abbat we owe the preservation of the Cid cantar as we owe to Sdnchez its issue in , more than half a century before any French chanson de geste was printed.
The Spanish epic. Unquestionably the Cid lived in the flesh : whether or not his alleged achievements occurred is another matter.
Irony has incidentally marked him for its own. Yet two points must be kept in mind": the facts which discredit him are reported by hostile Arab his- torians ; and, again, the Cid is entitled to be judged by the standard of his country and his time.
But there is a fixed intent to place the Spaniard first. The Cid is pictured as more Jiuman than Roland: he releases his prisoners without j ransom ; he gives them money so that they may reach their homes.
The machinery in both cases is very similar. Roland and Ruy Diaz are absolved and exhorted to the same effect, and the resemblance of the epithet curunez applied to the French bishop is too close to the coronado of the Spaniard to be accidental.
But allowing for the fact that the Spanish juglar borrows his framework, his per- formance is great by virtue of its simplicity, its strength, its spirit and fire.
Whether he deals with the hungry loyalty of the Cid in exile, or his reception into favour by an ingrate king ; whether he celebrates the overthrow!
There is an unity of conception and of language which forbids our accepting the Poema as the work of several hands ; and the division of the poem into separate cantares is managed with a discretion which argues a single artistic intelligence.
The first part closes with the marriage of the hero's daughters ; the second with the shame of the Infantes de Carri6n, and the proud an- nouncement that the kings of Spain are sprung from the Cid's loins.
In both the singer rises to the level of his subject, but his chief est gust is in the recital of some brilliant deed of arms.
Three hundred lances down they come, their pennons flickering white; Down go three hundred Moors to earth, a man to every blowj And, when they wheel, three hundred more, as charging back they go.
That he knew the French models is evident from his skilful conveyance of the bear episode in Ider to his own pages, where the Cid encoun- ters the beast as a lion.
But the language shows no hint of French influence, and both thought and expression are profoundly national.
The poet's name is irrecover- able, but the internal evidence points strongly to the conclusion that he came from the neighbourhood of Medina Cell.
Against this is the topographical minuteness with which the poet reports the sallies of the Cid in the districts of Castej6n and Alcocer ; his marked ignorance of the country round Zaragoza and Valencia, his detailed description of the central episode — the outrage upon the Cid's daughters in the wood of Corpes, near Berlanga ; and the important fact that the four chief itineraries in the Poema are charged with minutiae from Molina to San Esteban de Gormaz, while they grow vague and more confused as they extend towards Burgos and Valencia.
PiHfU Perhaps the greatest testimony to the early poet's worth is to be found in this : that hTs conceplibri of his hero has outlived the true historic Cid, and has forced the child of his imagination upon the acceptance of mankind.
The composi- tion which bears this clumsy and inappropriate title is better named the Cantar de Rodrigo, and consists of 1 1 25 lines, preceded by a scrap of rugged prose.
Not till after digressions into other episodes, and irrelevant stories of Miro and Bernardo, Bishops of Palencia, pro- bably fellow-townsmen of the compiler, does the Cid appear.
He is no longer, as in the Poema, a popular hero, idealised from historic report ; he is a purely ima- ginary figure, incrusted with a mass of fables accumulated in course of time.
At the age of twelve he slays Gomez G6rmaz an almost impossible style, compounded of a patronymic and the name of a castle belonging to the Cid , is claimed by the dead man's daughter, weds her, vanquishes the Moors, and leads his King's — Fernando's — troops to the gates of Paris, defeating the Count of Savoy upon the road.
One legend is heaped upon another, and the poem, the end of which is lost, breaks off with the Pope's request for a year's truce, which Fernando, acting as ever upon the Cid's advice, mag- nanimously extends for twelve years.
It is hard to say whether the Cantar de Rodrigo as we have it is the production of a single composer, or whether it is a patchwork by dijfferent hands, arranged from earlier poems, and eked out by prose stories and by oral tradi- tions.
The versification is that of the simple sixteen- syllabled line, each hemistich of which forms a typical romance line. Much of the obscurity of language, which has been mistaken for archaism, is simply due to the defects of the manuscript ; and the evidence goes to show that the RodrigOy put together in the last decade of the twelfth century or the first of the thirteenth, was retouched in the fourteenth by Spanish juglares humili- ated by the recent French invasions.
The nameless Spanish arranger of the thirteenth century probably a native of Arag6n gives the story of Apollonius' adventures with force and clearness, anticipating in the character of Tarsiana the type of Preciosa, the heroine of Cervantes' Gitanilla and of Weber's opera.
Unfortunately the closing tags of moralisings on the vanity of life destroy the effect which the writer has produced by his free translation.
His text is suffused with Provengalisms, and his mono- rhymed quatrains of fourteen syllables are evidence of French or Provencal origin.
This metrical novelty, extending over more than six hundred stanzas, is pro- perly regarded by the author as his chief distinction, and he implores God and the Virgin to guide him in the exercise of the new mastery nueva maestrid.
It is fair to add that his experiment has the interest of novelty, that it succeeded beyond measure in its time, and that its monotonous vogue endured for some two hundred years.
To the same period belongs the Vida de Santa Maria jEgipciaquay the earliest Castilian example of verses of nine syllables.
The Spanish version follows the French lead with almost pedantic exactitude ; but the metre, new and well suited to the common ear, is handled with an easy grace re- markable in a first effort.
As happens with other works of this time, the title of the short Libre dels Tres Reyes dorient is misleading.
Like its predecessor, this legend is given in nine-syllabled verse, and is undoubtedly borrowed from a French or Provengal source not yet discovered, h In the Disputa del Alma y el Cuerpo Argument be- 1 twixt Body and Soul , a subject which passes into!
Thus it is sought to reproduce the music of the model, an Anglo-Norman poem, written in rhymed couplets of six syllables, and wrongly attributed to Walter Map.
Composed in verses of nine syllables, the poem deals with the meeting of two lovers, their colloquy, interchanges, and separation.
Both pieces, discovered within the last seventeen years by M. Morel-Fatio, are the productions of a single mind. Whoever the author may have been — and the internal evidence tends to show that he was a clerk familiar with French, Provengal, Italian, or Portuguese exemplars — he shines by virtue of qualities which are akin to genius.
Here was a poet who recognised that in literature — the least moral of the arts — the end justifies the means ; hence he transformed the material which he borrowed, made it his own possession, and conveyed into Castile a new method adapted to her needs.
But time and language were not yet ripe, and the Spanish lyric flourished solely in Galicia : it was not to be trans- planted at a first attempt.
A few details are known of him. He was certainly a deacon in , and his name occurs in documents between and His copiousness runs to some thirteen thousand lines, including, besides the works already named, the Sacrificio de la Misa Sacrifice of the Mass , the Martirio de San Lorenzo Martyrdom of St.
In most editions of Berceo there is appended to his verses a poem in his praise, attributed to an unknown writer of the fourteenth century.
This poem is, in fact, conjectured to be an invention of TomAs Antonio Sdnchez, the earliest editor of Berceo's complete works The chances are that Berceo and his writings had passed out of remembrance within two hundred years of his death, and he was evidently unknown to Santillana in the fifteenth century.
He sings in the vernacular, he declares, being too unlearned in the Latin ; but he has his little pretensions. Berceo uses the rhythm with success, and if his results are not splendid, it was not because he lacked perseverance.
On the contrary, his industry was only too formidable. Start 14 day Free Trial. Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Continue with Facebook Sign up with Google. Already have an account? Log in. APA Selected books received. Journal of Economics, 71 3 , MLA "Selected books received.
Kylän kehityssuunnitelma on tämän lisäksi toimia Sulvan tiedotus- ja markkinointityökaluna. Här skulle de äldre, som vill bli kvar i sin egen hemby, bo.
Även de unga kunde ges möjlighet att bo i lediga lokaler. Samtidigt är det viktigt att vid all planering beakta markägarnas intressen och primärnäringarnas verksamhetsförutsättningar.
Palvelutalon tarjontaan voisi kuulua terveysasema, kotihoidon ja kotisairaanhoidon tiloja sekä ruokapalvelut ja vapaa-ajan toimintatiloja.
Vanhukset, jotka haluavat jäädä asumaan omaan kotikyläänsä asuisivat täällä. He voisivat olla yhteydessä omaisiinsa, tuttuihinsa ja seurakuntaansa, osallistuen perinteisiin toimintoihin.
Myös nuorille tarjoutuisi mahdollisuus asua vapaissa asunnoissa. Samanaikaisesti on tärkeää, että suunnitteluvaiheessa huomioidaan maanomistajien intressit ja peruselinkeinon toimintaedellytykset.
On tutkittava, olisiko tiloille käyttöä kerhotiloina sekä alaasteopetuksen luokkina tarpeen vaatiessa. De föreslagna alternativen som utreds är att dra vägen längs Södra Stadsfjärden, vilket inte accepteras av Solfborna som deltagit i planeringen.
Det behövs mera parkeringsplatser i centrum. Keskustaan tarvitaan lisää pysäköintitilaa. Monet tiepätkät ovat vailla kävely- ja pöyräilyteitä.
Ehdotetut vaihtoehdot, joita on tutkittu, pitävät sisällään tien johtamisen Eteläistä Kaupunginselkää pitkin, mitä suunnitteluun osallistuneet sulvalaiset eivät voi hyväksyä.
Vad anser ni om inflyttningstakten? Mitkä kysymykset tärkeitä paikallisyhteisömme kehittämisessä? I vilken form borde ett eventuellt serviceboende för äldre förverkligas?
Millaisia palveluasuntoja vanhuksille tulisi järjestää? Pystyttekö mielestänne vaikuttamaan Sulvan suunnitteluun ja kehittämiseen? Vad skall kommunen göra med gamla skolan?
Mitä kunnan tulisi tehdä vanhalle koululle? Om skadat, riv! Mitä voitaisiin tehdä yhteisöllisyyden ja viihtyvyyden lisäämiseksi?
Enkäten bra underlag för planering 2. Överlag upplever man en god Solfanda, trots stor inflyttning, utmaningarna dock uppenbara 3.
Kollektiva satsningar fester, evenemang välkomnas. Prioriteras: hälsostation i centrum, serviceboende för äldre hyreslägenheter , cykelleder, möjligheter för idrott Behov av bättre utrymmen för bibliotek, hälsostation, eftis, morris, skola Rikt föreningsliv - med pontential för nya medlemmar 9.
Kartan sijaintitiedoissa voi olla epätarkkuuksia. Kiinteistön tarkka alueellinen ulottuvuus selviää toimitusasiakirjoista ja maastosta.
Voidakseen aktiivisesti vaikuttaa ja osallistua Sulvan kehitykseen.